In response to the parliament postulates, the Swiss Federal Council issued a report on virtual currencies in June In , Zug added bitcoin as a means of paying city fees, in a test and an attempt to advance Zug as a region that is advancing future technologies. On 21 May , Albania passed a new law to regulate cryptocurrency activities.
The Decree On the Development of Digital Economy — the decree of Alexander Lukashenko , the President of the Republic of Belarus , which includes measures to liberalize the conditions for conducting business in the sphere of high technologies. The provisions of the decree "On the Development of Digital Economy" create of a legal basis for the circulation of digital currencies and tokens based on blockchain technology, so that resident companies of the High-Tech Park can provide the services of stock markets and exchange offices with cryptocurrencies and attract financing through the ICO.
For legal entities, the Decree confers the rights to create and place their own tokens, carry out transactions through stock markets and exchange operators; to individuals the Decree gives the right to engage in mining , to own tokens, to acquire and change them for Belarusian rubles , foreign currency and electronic money, and to bequeath them. Up to 1 Jan In , the Decree excludes revenue and profits from operations with tokens from the taxable base. In relation to individuals, the acquisition and sale of tokens is not considered entrepreneurial activity, and the tokens themselves and income from transactions with them are not subject to declaration.
The peculiarity of the introduced regulation is that all operations will have to be carried out through the resident companies of the High-Tech Park. Denmark's Financial Supervisory Authority issued a statement declaring that bitcoin is not a currency and stating that it will not regulate its use. As of [update] , FSA says that doing business with bitcoin does not fall under its regulatory authority and therefore FSA does not prevent anyone from opening such businesses. In Estonia, the use of bitcoins is not regulated or otherwise controlled by the government.
The Estonian Ministry of Finance have concluded that there is no legal obstacles to use bitcoin-like crypto currencies as payment method. Traders must therefore identify the buyer when establishing business relationship or if the buyer acquires more than 1, euros of the currency in a month. The Finnish Tax Administration has issued instructions for the taxation of virtual currencies, including the bitcoin. Purchases of goods with bitcoin or conversion of bitcoin into legal currency "realizes" the value and any increase in price will be taxable; however, losses are not tax-deductible.
Mined bitcoin is considered earned income. This is because the court classified bitcoins as payment instruments - whereas most countries treat their use as an unregulated method for the exchange of goods, or even as a crime. According to a opinion, from the Central Bank of Iceland "there is no authorization to purchase foreign currency from financial institutions in Iceland or to transfer foreign currency across borders on the basis of transactions with virtual currency.
For this reason alone, transactions with virtual currency are subject to restrictions in Iceland. On 12 March , the Central Bank amended its rules. With the new rules, wide and general exemptions have been granted from the restrictions of the Foreign Exchange Act No. Bank of Lithuania released a warning on 31 January , that bitcoin is not recognized as legal tender in Lithuania and that bitcoin users should be aware of high risks that come with the usage of it.
The Norwegian Tax Administration stated in December that they don't define bitcoin as money but regard it as an asset. Profits are subjected to wealth tax. In business, use of bitcoin falls under the sales tax regulation. The Norwegian government stated in February that they would not levy VAT on the purchase or sale of bitcoin. The decision has been appealed by the Swedish Tax Authority. The Swedish jurisdiction is in general quite favorable for bitcoin businesses and users as compared to other countries within the EU and the rest of the world.
The governmental regulatory and supervisory body Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority Finansinspektionen have legitimized the fast growing industry by publicly proclaiming bitcoin and other digital currencies as a means of payment. There is not a single word in Bulgarian laws about bitcoin.
No specific legislation on bitcoins exists in Greece. Italy does not regulate bitcoin use by private individuals.
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As of [update] , Malta does not have any regulations specifically pertaining to bitcoins. Muscat specifically addressed the bitcoin blockchain's ability to handle, store and process sensitive data in an immutable and decentralized ecosystem. In the same press release the NBRM quoted the law on Foreign Exchange Operations, but since cryptocurrencies do not constitute a foreign currency as they are quoted by the law, it leaves them unregulated.
Bitcoin has no specific legal framework in Portugal. Transactions in bitcoins are subject to the same laws as barter transactions. The Minister of Finance indicated that government intervention with regard to the bitcoin system does not appear necessary at the present time.
The French Ministry of Finance issued regulations on 11 July pertaining to the operation of virtual currency professionals, exchanges, and taxation. The Central Bank of Ireland was quoted in the Assembly of Ireland as stating that it does not regulate bitcoins. The Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier has issued a communication in February acknowledging the status of currency to the bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
As of [update] , virtual currencies such as bitcoin do not fall within the scope of the Act on Financial Supervision of the Netherlands.
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Bitcoin is treated as 'private money'. When bitcoin is exchanged for sterling or for foreign currencies, such as euro or dollar, no VAT will be due on the value of the bitcoins themselves. However, in all instances, VAT will be due in the normal way from suppliers of any goods or services sold in exchange for bitcoin or other similar cryptocurrency. Profits and losses on cryptocurrencies are subject to capital gains tax.
They have proposed a code of conduct that includes the provision of Anti-Money Laundering and extra security measures. In December , the governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia RBA indicated in an interview about bitcoin legality stating, "There would be nothing to stop people in this country deciding to transact in some other currency in a shop if they wanted to. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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April Index to countries. See also: BitLicense. Accessed 25 September Retrieved 25 February Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 23 October Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank. ISBN Retrieved 5 March European Parliamentary Research Service. Annex B: Bitcoin regulation or plans therefor in selected countries.
Members' Research Service. Retrieved 18 February European Banking Authority. Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 22 March Guidance for a risk-based approach.
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